Sunday, November 21, 2010

Household Chemicals Linked to Early Puberty, Infertility

Group Pushes for New Laws, More Study on Common Chemicals

Nov. 18, 2010 -- A growing list of common household chemicals may be linked to reproductive health problems, including early puberty and infertility.

The list includes phthalates, the plastics chemical bisphenol A (BPA), perfluorinated compounds found in nonstick cookware, flame retardants, the antibacterial agent triclosan, and mercury, according to experts speaking at a news conference sponsored by Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families,  a coalition seeking to overhaul the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

The group is pushing for the passage of the “Safe Chemicals Act of 2010” in the Senate and the "Toxic Chemicals Safety Act of 2010" in the House. Among other things, these bills call on the companies who make chemicals to test them for safety, instead of the Environmental Protection Agency having to prove they are unsafe.

Evidence Mounts

Linda C. Giudice, MD, PhD, the chair of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive sciences at the University of California, San Francisco, says that there is "increasing evidence that these contaminants may be playing a role in reproductive disorders."

Some, such as the controversial BPA, are known endocrine disruptors, which means they look or act like hormones in the body.

"We have begun to question whether exposures are affecting reproductive health, and the data are quite confirmatory," she says. "We don't really have a good handle on why certain chemicals may put African-American girls, for example, at risk for an earlier age of onset for puberty."

It's complex, Giudice says. "It is partly genetic and partly nutritional and there may also be other influences as well."
There is a lack of data on many of the chemicals used today, she says.  "The absence of data does not mean they are safe." One of the group's issues with the TSCA is that it "grandfathered" in 62,000 chemicals without testing.

While studies linking chemicals to human health problems have been mixed, it is possible they have not captured the vulnerable period of exposure.

"They may have looked in the wrong place," she says. Going forward, a study by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development at the National Institutes of Health may provide some clarity. This study will follow chemical exposures among women from conception and pregnancy and track their children through puberty.

Limiting Exposure to Chemicals

Seattle-based mom Molly Gray does not need any more convincing. She had two miscarriages before giving birth to her son. Despite eating organic food, steering clear of fish high in mercury, and using green cleaning products, her blood tested high for 13 toxic chemicals, including mercury, when she participated in a study during her pregnancy.
"As clean as I tried to be and as hard as I tried, I was still exposed to many chemicals known to have toxic effects," she says. As of now her 1-year-old son appears perfectly healthy. "My concerns are the unknown," she says. "We have no idea what the long-term results are."

There are things that people can do today to lower their exposure levels if they are concerned, says Tracey Woodruff, PhD, MPH, an associate professor and director of University of California - San Francisco's Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment.

These chemicals and their residue can also be found in dust, so keeping the house clean can help lower exposure, Woodruff says.

Giudice routinely discusses these issues with her patients, but tries to frame it in a non-alarmist sort of way.
"We are very careful not to be alarming unless there are really strong data," says Giudice.

For example, the risks of mercury exposure during pregnancy are fairly well known, and women are counseled to limit their exposure during pregnancy by avoiding fish high in mercury.

"Most patients are very motivated as parents or potential parents and are very receptive on how to minimize their exposure and maximize their health during pregnancy and the health of their baby," she says. "We don't know when the exposure may occur and feeling guilty is not the thing we want to instill in these patients."

Role of Congress

Andy Igrejas, the national campaign director for Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families in Washington, D.C., says many states are addressing these issues with laws designed to protect consumers from the potential health effect of toxic chemicals. "There has been quite a bit of momentum and a handful of states have passed policies that are more comprehensive and designed to move away from toxins and chemicals," he says.

What Congress will do and how much responsibility industry will take is not yet known, he says.

Jeff Stier, a senior fellow at the National Center for Public Policy Research, says he would not count on the federal legislation passing any time soon. The National Center for Public Policy Research is a Washington, D.C.-based conservative think tank.

"For decades, activists have been hyping fear in order to advance their legislative agenda which reduces consumer choice and adds to our costs, without making us any safer," says Stier. "As Congress considers TSCA Reform, known as the Safe Chemicals Act, be prepared for another round of scaremongering designed to influence legislation," he says.

"It is unlikely that it will pass," he says. "It is not a priority for this Congress, and the next Congress won't support it."

Taken from below source:
Household Chemicals Linked to Early Puberty, Infertility

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Preventing Gum Disease

Preventing Gum Disease Benefits Long Term Health

Gum disease is an important early warning sign of potentially serious health problems later on in life, warn oral healthcare experts at Eludril and Elgydium.

Going to bed without brushing your teeth correctly “could potentially have a devastating effect on your long-term health.”

It is widely accepted that people with gum disease are almost twice as likely to suffer from coronary artery disease as those without it.

Also, people with diabetes are more likely to have gum disease, which can make it more difficult for them to control their blood sugar.

Pregnant women who have gum disease may be seven times more likely to have a baby that is born too early and too small.

In the past few weeks, a link has even been suggested between the incidence of gum disease and breast cancer.
So how can we avoid these potential problems?

The main culprit is dental plaque which is a biofilm, usually colourless, that develops on our teeth. It colonises bacteria and attaches itself to the smooth surface of the tooth.

At this stage the film is soft enough to be removed through regular and thorough toothbrushing. However, if it is not removed, within just 48 hours the plaque will begin to harden.

And within 10 days the plaque will become dental calculus (tartar), which is rock-hard and very difficult to remove.
If left untreated, dental calculus can lead to chronically inflamed gums, receding gums, tooth decay and bad breath. It may even result in the tooth becoming loose and falling out.

The advice from a spokesperson for oral healthcare products Eludril and Elgydium is as follows:

  •     practice good oral hygiene on a regular basis – dental plaque develops in under 48 hours
  •     brush at least twice a day for approximately two minutes each time
  •     floss every day, as this reaches areas that a toothbrush might miss
  •     visit your dentist/hygienist on a regular basis to ensure that signs of gum disease are spotted and treated as soon as possible
  •     replace your toothbrush every three to four months or as soon as the bristles look worn.
The spokesman added: “You should avoid starchy, sugary foods and drinks as these make the problem worse.
“Eating plenty of fresh foods and vegetables and avoiding snacking between meals will also help to keep your gums and teeth healthy.

“Should you spot the early signs of gum disease, visit your dentist as soon as possible, as the condition is easily and effectively treated if caught early and need not result in any long-term health issues.”

These are the gum disease symptoms you should be looking out for:

  •     sore gums or swollen gums are often early indicators of gum disease (often known as gingivitis)
  •     bleeding gums – it is not usual for gums to bleed. If they do so, there is something wrong
  •     receding gums, a sign that gum disease has been left untreated for some time.
If you have receding gums, the root of your tooth will be exposed and this will often result in local sensitivity and pain.

As this condition worsens, a receding gum line will de-stabilise your teeth and they will gradually loosen, move and ultimately either fall out or have to be extracted.

Quick, easy and effective treatments are available for those who have detected the early signs of gum disease.
Experts from Eludril and Elgydium recommend that you check with your dentist for advice on which gingivitis treatment is right for you.

“The gold standard treatment for gum disease for many years has been chlorhexidine which has been proven effective against the key organisms that cause gum disease and works by inhibiting the build-up of dental plaque.”
Eludril mouthwash – which contains chlorhexidine – is an antibacterial and analgesic solution used to prevent and treat gum disease.

Choosing the right toothpaste is just as important. The Elgydium toothpaste range includes a regular Anti-Plaque paste containing chlorhexidine to help prevent dental plaque and tartar build-up.

There are also Whitening, Sensitive and Decay Protection toothpastes – but unlike many Whitening toothpastes, the whitening agent in Elgydium Whitening (Sodium Bicarbonate) is micropulverised to reduce harmful abrasion of the teeth.

Elgydium Sensitive contains a unique new-generation Fluoride called Fluorinol clinically proven to reinforce teeth against decay by binding to the enamel five times more effectively than ordinary fluoride.

Elgydium Decay Protection also contains Fluorinol, as well as a special agent called Siliglycol that keeps more fluoride on teeth – even after rinsing – to give day-long protection against decay.

For further information about protecting teeth against gum disease, please contact Nikki Pounds on +44 (0)1202 780558.

Taken from below source:

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Take it with a grain of salt - but not more

Teens' salt intake double recommended amount: Study

By QMI Agency

The average teen takes in double the recommended amount of salt daily and a new study says decreasing that will prevent future health issues.

The report by researchers from the University of California, San Francisco says teens eat more than nine grams of salt (3,800 milligrams of sodium) every day.

This is more than any other age group and far above the 1,500 milligrams of sodium recommended as the maximum amount a person should have by the American Heart Association. Health Canada recommends between 1,000 to 1,500 milligrams daily.

The researchers said reducing a teenager's salt intake by three grams projected a 44% to 63% decrease in the number of hypertensive teenagers and young adults. They also said a decrease in salt intake would reduce high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke in adulthood.

Researchers noted about 80% of salt comes from processed or prepared foods — 35% of that in cereals, breads and pastries.

"The hidden places of salt in our diet are in breads and cereals, canned foods and condiments, and of course fast foods," lead author Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo said. "Most of the salt that we eat is not from our salt shaker, but salt that is already added in food that we eat."

Dropping those three grams would also mean teens would be eating the correct amount of sodium.

"Reducing the amount of salt that is already added to the food that we eat could mean that teenagers live many more years free of hypertension," Bibbins-Domingo said. "The additional benefit of lowering salt consumption early is that we can hopefully change the expectations of how food should taste, ideally to something slightly less salty."

Health Canada recommends people eat fresh, unprocessed foods to help reduce their sodium intake. It's also suggested people avoid adding salt to their food and ask for nutrition information to see how food is prepared.

Taken from below source:

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Don't be deprived of sleep, or else...

Not getting enough sleep isn't for anybody, not for babies, not for kids, not for teenagers, and definitely not for adults!

Sleep deprivation can ruin your health

By Amy Yeong

SINGAPORE - Chronic sleep deprivation is a growing problem, particularly in fast-paced societies such as Singapore's.

A survey conducted on 940 students in 28 secondary schools in 2007 revealed that only 2.6 per cent of them were getting the recommended nine hours of sleep. 80 per cent were getting less than eight hours of slumber a night.

A poll conducted this year revealed that most Singaporeans realise that the lack of sleep affects them negatively - the Philips Health Index found that 72 per cent of men in Singapore feel that their mental health is badly affected by lack of sleep, while 57 per cent of women feel the same way.

The dangers of sleep deprivation have been making the headlines in recent years. Lack of adequate, good quality sleep has been linked to weight gain, memory problems, reduced efficiency at work, heart problems and inability to focus and concentrate. It has also been linked with an increased risk of diabetes, fibromyalgia as well as increased blood pressure.

Sleep deprivation is also a well-known trigger for psychiatric illnesses such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Chronic sleep deprivation has been known to trigger off episodes of psychosis - such as hallucinations and paranoid thinking - in patients with known case histories of psychiatric conditions.

From the Philips Health Index, it seems encouraging that the majority of Singaporeans are aware of the dangers of sleep deprivation. However, awareness is one issue - actually doing something to change unhealthy behaviour is another.

The first step is to assess if you are sleep deprived. If you are getting less than 6-8 hours of solid sleep everyday, and if you are constantly feeling tired, sleepy during the day, easily irritable, unable to concentrate, and you find that your ability to handle stress has taken a nosedive, chances are that you might be suffering from sleep deprivation.

Second, one has to find out what is causing the problem. For many Singaporeans, it is the fact that there is too much to do in too little time. Oftentimes you hear colleagues and friends remarking that they wished they needed less sleep, or that the day was 48 hours long, just so that they can get more things done. In such cases, one must acknowledge the devastating effects of getting insufficient sleep, and learn to prioritise and say 'no' to certain projects, social engagements or activities.

For some others, the problem lies with sleep disorders, such as insomnia, sleep apnoea, or with psychiatric conditions - such as depression and anxiety disorder - that can sometimes interfere with one's sleep. In such cases, it is best to see a doctor for thorough assessment so that appropriate treatment can be given.

In an e-mail interview with AsiaOne Health earlier this year, Dr Lim Li Ling, a consultant neurologist at Singapore Neurology And Sleep Centre noted that "it does not make very good sense to overwork ourselves when our health suffers inevitably as we deprive ourselves of sleep - the price we pay, in my opinion, would be far too high no matter what 'rewards' we get from pushing ourselves so hard at work.

"We become less effective, less efficient and increase our risk of serious diseases like heart disease, depression, diabetes and even early death if we persist in pushing ourselves to get by with less rest than we actually need," she added.

The dangers of sleep deprivation are not over-exaggerated. Said Prof Michael Chee from Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore's Cognitive Neuroscience Lab in an article on the school's research site, "Sleep deprivation could be the silent killer of the 21st Century."

The choice, therefore, is ours. We can either persist in trying to 'stay on top of things' by depriving ourselves of essential rest. Or we can take a step back and get our priorities right. The world will not grind to a halt if we go to bed a couple of hours earlier - and that much needed sleep will recharge your mind so that you'll be able to get more done in less time.

The choice seems simple. What would it be for you?

Taken from below source:
Sleep deprivation can ruin your health

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Vit D risk in-between races

ScurvyImage via WikipediaIs it due to our genes? Of course, the skin color is there, but that is no longer the norm.
So I can say that it is due to our genes. Stronger, eh?

Vitamin D deficiency doubles the risk of fatal stroke in whites but not in blacks, study finds

A vitamin D deficiency doubles the risk of fatal strokes in whites, but has no effect on the risk in blacks, even though blacks are more likely to have vitamin D deficiencies and are 65% more likely to die from strokes, researchers said Sunday. The results were puzzling, said Dr. Erin Michos of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore. "We thought maybe the lower vitamin D levels might actually explain why blacks have higher risks for strokes," she said.

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States, killing more than 140,000 Americans annually and permanently disabling more than half a million.

Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin involved in bone health, helps prevent rickets in children, protects against severe bone loss in adults, and may lower the risk of heart disese, cancer, multiple sclerosis, diabetes and other medical conditions. Natural sources include exposure to ultraviolet B rays in sunlight and eating fatty fish, egg yolk, and fortified foods such as milk and breakfast cereals.

Michos and her colleagues analyzed health records of 7,981 black and white adults who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of Americans, conducted between 1988 and 1994, following the participants for a median of 14 years. They reported at a Chicago meeting of the American Heart Assn. that, among the participants, 6.6% of whites and 32.3% of blacks had severely low levels of vitamin D in their blood, classified as levels below 15 nanograms per milliliter. During the  period of the study, 116 whites and 60 blacks died of stroke. Accounting for age and other risk factors, blacks were 65% more likely to suffer a stroke. Higher levels of diabetes and hypertension probably account for some of the increased risk, but not this much, Michos said. "Something else is surely behind this problem. However, don't blame vitamin D deficits."

The lack of sensitivity to low levels of vitamin D may be an adaptation to historic low levels associated with the sun-blocking effects of skin pigments, she added. The blacks in the study also had fewer incidents of bone fracture and greater overall bone density than whites. "In blacks, we may not need to raise vitamin D levels to the same level as in whites to minimize their risk of stroke," she concluded.

Taken from below article:
Vitamin D deficiency doubles the risk of fatal stroke in whites but not in blacks, study finds

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Thursday, November 18, 2010

Garlic can overcome hypertension

Here is one article that I saw in the net. Hope it helps, but do take note that this should only be administered after discussing with your doctor.
Read on, and read the full article - it is short!

Benefits of garlic in preventing various diseases was already long since become the attention of scientists? Not only as an anticancer, garlic was also very useful for overcoming high blood pressure.

Some doctors in Austria even recommend garlic as additional materials in addition to medical drugs for people with hypertension patients. The doctors were doing tests to 50 patients with hypertension remedy supplement made of garlic, although still taking other medical drugs.

Patients with hypertension who received four capsules of garlic extract per day will have a lower blood pressure compared with patients receiving placebo pills. Previous research has also shown that garlic extract is very potent in lowering cholesterol levels and high blood pressure in patients with hypertension who can not handle anymore.

Honey, Garlic, & Vinegar: Home Remedies & Recipes : The People's Guide to Nature's Wonder MedicinesGarlic and You: The Modern MedicineGarlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and The ScienceNaturessunshine Garlic Immune System Support Herbal Dietary Supplement 100 Capsules (Pack of 2)However the researchers explained that garlic supplements may be consumed only after getting advice from doctors because garlic can thin the blood and will lead to interaction with some medical drugs.

Taken from
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Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Drugs may replace chemo in leukaemia treatment

And it isn't only drugs that is getting improvement, but the process of administering them, of the diagnosing part of it...

A researcher at work
Chemo to the Rescue: A Children's Book About LeukemiaRebirth: A Leukemia Survivor's Journal of Healing during Chemotherapy, Bone Marrow Transplant, and RecoveryAdult Leukemia: A Comprehensive Guide for Patients and Families100 Questions & Answers About Leukemia (100 Questions & Answers about)Childhood Leukemia: A guide for Families, Friends & Caregivers (Patient Centered Guides)SINGAPORE: Singapore scientists are a step closer to replacing chemotherapy with drugs, as the main treatment for certain patients with leukaemia.

They have found a combination of drugs effective in suppressing the cancer.

This treatment may become routine in four years, if clinical trials starting next year prove successful.

Treating cancer via chemotherapy can be painful and may lead to side effects such as severe vomiting and hair loss.

Cancer Science Institute of Singapore senior principal investigator Chng Wee Joo said: "We can use two types of oral-based treatment that are not chemotherapy to treat a subset of adult leukaemia patients that have a particular gene mutation in a gene called FLT3.

"This could potentially, in the future, replace much more toxic chemotherapy".

One in three leukaemia patients may benefit from this treatment.

The team also identified a gene called PRL3, that can help determine whether patients are likely to benefit.

A patient with less PRL3 is more likely to respond well.

This breakthrough was made possible by government research funding.

Scientists may be good at doing research but commercialising the results of their work is another matter.

And to this end Singapore's National Research Foundation has strongly pushed for scientific discoveries to translate into practical applications.

National Research and Development permanent secretary Teo Ming Kian said: "Research funding is becoming a lot more competitive.

"Researchers will have to, in a way, vie for those funding in areas that they think are going to make a difference to the world or society.

"So we want this contest, basically such that the best ideas, the best proposals are being funded".

The government will also look into building new facilities to support this when needed.


From; source article is below:
Drugs may replace chemo in leukaemia treatment

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Singaporeans getting fatter

While this is a localised problem in Singapore, obesity is a worldwide phenomenon...

Eating Disorders and Obesity, Second Edition: A Comprehensive HandbookToo Much (Focus) (Focus) (Focus) (Focus)Obesity EpidemiologyUnderstanding Obesity: The Five Medical Causes (Your Personal Health)Handbook of Obesity TreatmentFat Politics: The Real Story behind America's Obesity EpidemicThe Evolution of ObesitySINGAPORE: The problem of obesity is getting worse in Singapore.

The latest National Health Survey shows the obesity rate has increased from 6.9 per cent in 2004 to 10.8 per cent this year.

This year's National Healthy Lifestyle campaign is thus adopting a more holistic approach to help Singaporeans fight the flab.

More than 1,000 people turned up at the launch of the campaign by Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong.

They tried out the new Singapore Workout that includes traditional dance moves.

The message is for Singaporeans to get healthy together and combat obesity.

Health Promotion Board (HPB) CEO Lam Pin Woon said: "Based on the National Health Survey, the obesity rate is definitely on the upturn.

"This is very alarming for us; we do not want to be in the same situation like the other western countries where the obesity rate is that one in three of the population is obese.

"For now, our obesity rate is (about) 10 per cent - that's already very alarming, and we have to do something about it.

"This year, we want to create a social movement (and) get everyone to see the value of having a healthy weight (and) enjoy life by being healthy".

The HPB attributes the rise in obesity here to a lack of physical activity and a more sedentary lifestyle.

The National Health Survey found that 54.1 per cent of Singaporeans do not exercise.

Mr Neville Dotival, who lost about 18kg over three months to weigh 88.8kg, said: "I feel a lot better, I feel more energetic, I can play more with my kids.

He added that he is now fit enough to join his sons in activities during school events such as Sports Day.

HPB's Youth Health Division director K Vijaya said: "There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic disease including obesity has its roots in pre-natal and the early developmental stages of one's life.

"As a result of this evidence, we are shifting our obesity prevention efforts further upstream, to the pre-natal and early years of one's life.

"We will be empowering parents to nurture health lifestyles, among their children.

"We are coming up with guidelines, strategies to provide a conducive environment for this purpose such as baby friendly hospitals that support breast feeding.

"In addition, we will be coming up with guidelines to prevent indiscriminate advertising of food and beverages to children".

Other efforts include getting those from the food industry to develop lower calorie food products and meals, to cut some 25 billion kilocalories from Singapore's food supply by 2013.

HPB also intends to roll out a nationwide Body Mass Index survey every two to three years to better monitor obesity trends.


From; source article is below:
Singaporeans getting fatter

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CT screening cuts lung cancer death better than X-ray

So now even smokers have a glimpse of hope...

WASHINGTON: Screening heavy smokers with low-dose computer tomography (CT) instead of X-rays reduces deaths from lung cancer by 20 percent, a massive US study released on Thursday shows.

Previous studies have shown that helical CT scanning can identify small tumours in the early stages of growth better than X-rays.

"But it's never been shown before conclusively that the procedure has an effect on the ultimate outcome, namely lung cancer mortality," Harold Varmus, head of the National Cancer Institute, told reporters.

Although more research is needed to determine why CT-scan screening was tied to such a significant drop in lung cancer mortality, "the assumption is that a larger number of early cancers that would have been lethal were removed in patients who had undergone helical CT scanning," said Varmus.

Helical CT uses X-rays to obtain a multiple-image scan of the entire chest during seven to 15 seconds.

The findings are from the eight-year-long National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), in which researchers around the United States enrolled more than 50,000 current and former heavy smokers, aged 55-74, to determine whether screening with low-dose helical, or spiral, CT would reduce lung cancer mortality.

Participants who took part in the study at 33 centres across the United had on average "30 pack-years of smoking", or the equivalent of smoking a pack a day for 30 years, and were either current smokers or had quit in the last 15 years.

They were randomly assigned to receive annual screening for three years, either with low-dose CT or conventional X-rays, at the start of the study in 2002.

All deaths from lung cancer were documented, and when researchers reviewed the data, they found that a 20-percent drop in lung cancer mortality among patients who were screened using CT.

"This finding has important implications for public health with the potential to save many lives among those at greatest risk for lung cancer," said Varmus.

"But this screening does not prevent lung cancer and doesn't protect the large majority of subjects from death from lung cancer," he added, stressing that the best way to prevent smoking-related lung illness was to quit smoking or never start.

Doctors project that some 157,000 people in the United States will die of lung cancer this year, the vast majority of them current or former heavy smokers.

- AFP/de

From; source article is below:
CT screening cuts lung cancer death better than X-ray

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Monday, November 15, 2010

Be fit, have fewer colds

Another benefit of exercising cited!

Stamina 55-1610 InMotion E1000 Elliptical TrainerJillian Michaels: Banish Fat, Boost MetabolismThe Men's Health Big Book of Exercises: Four Weeks to a Leaner, Stronger, More Muscular YOU!P90X Extreme Home Fitness Workout Program - 13 DVDs, Nutrition Guide, Exercise PlannerPARIS: Couch potatoes are nearly twice as likely to catch a cold, and a third likelier to suffer bad symptoms of a cold, compared with counterparts who keep fit, American researchers reported on Tuesday.

They tracked 1,002 adults in Wisconsin aged 18-85 for 12 weeks in the autumn and winter of 2008, monitoring them for respiratory illness and weight and quizzing them about diet, lifestyle and aerobic exercise.

People who described themself as fit or who exercised up to five days a week or more, had between 4.4 and 4.9 "cold" days on average.

For those who fell in the middle category of fitness, and exercised between one and four days a week, this was 4.9-5.5 days.

But among counterparts who said they were of low fitness and who exercised only one day a week or less, the tally was between 8.2 and 8.6 days.

Good fitness also caused the severity of cold symptoms to fall by between 31 and 41 per cent lower compared with the most sedentary lifestyle.

Bouts of exercise unleash a temporary rise in immune defences, helping to boost preparedness against viral intruders, the study suggested.

It cited figures that the average adult in the US can expect to have a cold two to four times a year, and children between half a dozen and 10 colds a year. The cost to the US economy is put at around 40 billion dollars annually.

The paper, published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, is headed by David Nieman, director of the Human Performance Laboratory at the Appalachian State University in North Carolina.

- AFP/jl

From; source article is below:
Be fit, have fewer colds

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